Wellness is the mental and physical health of individuals and groups. Chronic disease and lifestyle-related health issues are on the rise globally and are responsible for more than half of all deaths in the world. A person’s mental, emotional, physical, social, environmental and spiritual condition is affected by their behaviors in diet, physical activity and inappropriate drug use.
Disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body, often limiting one’s physical health. It may be caused by a genetic or developmental disorder, exposure to a harmful chemical, bacteria, virus, or other unfavorable environmental factor. Diseases may be infectious or non-communicable, and common or rare. Though the number of diseases is virtually incalculable, the most fatal worldwide are heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infections. Scientific research has helped produce prevention measures, treatments and cures for many diseases; however, ongoing funding for research and distribution is needed. Vaccinations are a very effective medical method to teach the body to counteract a bacteria or virus, saving 2 to 3 million lives a year. Opting out of an immunization may reduce individual risk, but universal vaccination is necessary to eradicate a targeted disease. A major goal of the global health community is to give people around the world the opportunity to receive key vaccination
A chemical dependency is a physical and/or psychological addiction to substances such as alcohol or drugs. Addiction can dominate a person’s life, and even end it. Nearly 2.5 million people die as a result of alcohol abuse worldwide every year. Many more die in drug-related violence. Globally, about 200 million people use illegal drugs habitually. Though rich countries like the United States are major drug consumers, the developing world faces a looming crisis of drug dependence. Quite lucrative, drug trafficking reaps about $600 billion in profits annually, and these revenues often serve to fuel criminal organizations. Research indicates that authorities would have to stop 70% of all drug shipments to disrupt the trade. Some people believe that the war on drugs should be abandoned in favor for legalization and social legislation so that the drug-use can be marginalized.
beauty + fitness
Regular exercise provides many health benefits including disease prevention, mood improvement, and weight control. Approximately 3.2 million deaths each year are attributed to insufficient physical activity and obesity. Globally, 28% of men and 34% of women ages 15 years and older undertake too little exercise. The amount and type of exercise a person should do depends on his or her age, gender, and other physical characteristics. Lowest physical activity levels are linked to high national income – landing the wealthiest countries with the highest levels of preventable disease.
Mental health encompasses how we think, feel and act as we cope with life. In developed nations, mental disorders account for more disability than any other illness, including cancer and heart disease. In fact, they account for almost 11% of the disease burden. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders, affecting over 121 million people. Highly related to mental health, 1 million people die by suicide each year worldwide, and 10 to 20 million people attempt suicides annually.
quality of care
Quality of care describes the capacity of health care providers and systems to deliver effective prevention and treatment of disease. While medical innovation and health care availability offer great potential for widespread health improvements, it is ultimately the skilled administration of disease prevention and treatment services that saves lives. Conversely, misguided health practices can produce additional challenges to wellness rather than reducing them. A common example is the over-prescription of antibiotics, which has produced difficult-to-treat, antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Hallmarks of quality health care are safe practices among staff; the efficient use of financial resources; adaptation of medical treatment to the cultural, physical and emotional needs of patients; and tracking of results among patients to verify effectiveness.
The intake of a balanced, nutritious diet can prevent disease and enable proper development, weight management and overall wellness. Most research supports following a diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, healthy fats and proteins. Problems involving diet and nutrition vary around the world. In recent decades, there’s been an increased reliance upon pre-prepared and processed foods. Often heavy in salt, fat and sugar, these food sources are a dual burden of under-nutrition and obesity, across the globe. Knowledge about healthy food, food preparation and cooking techniques are being lost as new generations become more reliant on pre-packaged foods. According to the World Health Organization 2012 statistics, one in six adults is obese worldwide, and at least 2.8 million people will die each year as a result of being overweight or obese.
Public safety is the welfare and protection of the general population. Actions by government agencies, businesses, organizations, families and individuals all have a bearing on public safety. To promote a safe environment for everyone, people must be aware of how to avoid endangering themselves or others in everyday life. Authorities also work to reduce dangers to the public, such as harmful food and drug products,violent criminality, or natural hazards.
Reducing the global burden of preventable maternal and newborn illness or death has emerged as a major focus for developing nations. Though half as many women die in pregnancy and childbirth as compared to 20 years ago, the problem remains grave in certain parts of the world, particularly central and western Africa. Globally, an estimated 358,000 women die during pregnancy every year, and 3 million newborn babies die each year. Family planning resources are especially vital to natal and maternal wellness. Effective contraception is estimated to avert nearly 230 million unintended births each year, which also reduces the number of abortions that might otherwise be performed.
SDG:3 "Good Health and Well-Being"
Ensuring healthy lives and promoting the well-being for all at all ages is essential to sustainable development. Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common killers associated with child and maternal mortality. Major progress has been made on increasing access to clean water and sanitation, reducing malaria, tuberculosis, polio and the spread of HIV/AIDS. However, many more efforts are needed to fully eradicate a wide range of diseases and address many different persistent and emerging health issues.